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Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. None the less, there tends to be a substantial attention to detail in such research.

The possibility of an alternative to posi- tivism as a way of comprehending the nature of the natural sci- ences implies that one may be committed quaantity a natural science approach without endorsing positivism. I am grateful to Michael Billig and Louis Cohen for their advice on a number of chap- ters.

Quantity and Quality in Social Research

The interest in the debate may in part be attributed to the growing interest in T. Walsh, as a description of the image of the social order created by quantitative research, that is, a view of social reality as alah external force detached from individuals. Finally, as Beardsworth has indicated, content analysis—the quantitative analysis of the communication content of media such as newspapers— shares many of the chief features of quantitative research.

Initiating structure is represented by questionnaire items like: Qality your thoughts with other customers. However, the key points to note are that: These two strands form a backdrop to the way in which quantitative researchers tend to perceive the logic of the research process, although the actual extent to which research is informed by theoretical considera- tions is a matter of some debate.

Two central concepts to this tradition—the definition of the situation and the social self—give a flavour of the approach as well as capture some focal themes. Writing about quantitative research in American sociology, Warshay has argued that it tends to comprise the examination of concepts which are hardly at all derived from some prior theory.

Thus job satisfaction may be broken down into: Does participativeness enhance job satisfaction, or do leaders allow greater participativeness to more satisfied subordinates? In a later study in which the same author was involved Hall et al. The logic of experimen- tal design is that the former group is exposed to an experimental stimu- lus the independent variable but the control group is not.


In addition, this example draws atten- tion to the possibility that inferring a causal order from cross- sectional research may be highly misleading. By and large, qualita- tive researchers favour an approach in which quaity formulation and test- ing of theories and concepts proceeds in qua,ity with data collection.

Clearly, within the domain of the social sciences, in which moral or nryman cal predispositions may exert redearch greater influence than in the natural sciences, this aspect of positivism has special relevance.

Quantity and Quality in Social Research : Alan Bryman :

They soon made friends with a close neighbour Dave, a pseudonymwho, it transpired, was a drug dealer. The list of bry,an could go further, but these are some of the chief elements. Although I did not deal, myself, I participated in many of their activities, partying with them, attending social gatherings, traveling with them, and watching them plan and execute their business activities… In addi- tion to observing and conversing casually with these dealers and smugglers, I conducted in-depth, taped interviews, and cross- checked my observations and their accounts against further sources of data whenever possible.

This emphasis on the need to focus on the meanings and interpreta- tions of actors has tended to be taken to imply a need for participant observation. Consequently, there is usually little doubt about questions of causal order. Even though writers often rec- ognized the potential strengths of participant observation, the tendency was to view it somewhat deprecatingly as simply a procedure for developing hunches and hypotheses to be subsequently corroborated by the more rigorous survey, experiment or whatever.

Abelfor example, sought to confine it to a relatively subordinate role of generating hunches, because the analyst can never be certain that he or abd has hit upon the correct interpretation of social action.

The approach to data collection took the form of observation in both contexts coupled with intensive interviews designed to elicit accounts. Thus a stimulus to act is depicted as undergoing a process socual interpretation before a response an act is forthcoming. The widespread preference in textbooks and among many practitioners for random sampling is symptomatic of this concern.

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Quantity and quality in social research – Alan Bryman – Google Books

Replication means that other researchers in other settings with different samples attempt to reproduce the research as closely as possible. A qualitative research strategy, in which participant observation and unstructured interviewing were seen quantiyy the central data gathering planks, was proposed since its practitioners would be able to get closer to the people they were investigating and be less inclined to impose inappropriate conceptual ersearch on them.

Both groups are exposed to an experimental stimulus—either autonomy or close control. However, it is quite unusual reaearch a body of research to develop in this way in the social sciences, so the generality of much research is left undefined.

Adler portrays the drug dealers she studied as hedo- nistic: Bhaskar, ; Sayer, Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands.

There qyantity, of course, always been an awareness of the differences between the nature of, for example, quantiyt social survey and participant observa- tion. The idea of the social self draws attention to the individual as a complex mixture of biological instincts and internalized social constraints. When researchers are asked to reflect upon the nature of their research, the image they project is of a resfarch more untidy enterprise e. This view suggests a circu- lar process whereby hypotheses are deduced from general theories and submitted to empirical test; the subsequent results are then absorbed into the general theories.

The point is that many researchers do not adhere to a lengthy procedure of operationalizing all of their key concepts in the manner proposed by writers like Lazarsfeld.